This is the second of a two-part series on black and white (B&W) photography. The first was published on September 15.
Let's look at the techniques used in the creation of monochrome images.
We use some different methods and thought processes than we do with colour, as black and white (B&W) images are a study in form, design and texture.
The first consideration is that if the image isn't good to begin with, it can't be made good.
When composing your images keep in mind the basic tips for composition such as leading lines, textures, patterns and the rule of thirds.
Learn to look at shapes, textures and tones in order to create your point of interest, as you won't be using colour to lead.
Highlights and shadows play a large part in the creation of monochrome images, so the way your B&W photo is lit is critical.
Side lighting often adds texture and depth and creates drama and mood to your composition. Front lighting is flat.
The settings and exposure values you use to create the image may limit what you can do with the image during processing later.
Shoot in as low an ISO (sensor sensitivity) as possible to retain detail and resolution; higher ISO will add noise to the image.
Be careful to not overexpose highlights that are an essential part of the image, as they cannot be recovered.
Slight overexposure of some highlights may be allowable to retain some shadow area, if your choice is that the shadow detail is paramount. However, usually a viewer will usually forgive dark shadow quicker than non-viewable expanses of highlight.
Spectral highlights, the spots where there is a glint of light that is blown out, may be acceptable to some viewers.
Contrast is the difference between adjacent lighter and darker parts of the photo; the greater the difference, the greater the contrast appears.
The type of light you are working with and how your subject reflects that light dictates whether your photo will be of high, medium or low contrast.
Bright sunny days will give high contrast, while overcast days provide low contrast and broader tones.
Light and shadow are what capture the physical properties of the subjects in a B&W photograph. These are seen in the form of tone, texture and shape.
The number of gradations between the darkest part of the image and the lightest is called the dynamic range. Greater dynamic range creates broader tones and lower contrast.
Always shoot in RAW format, as it holds all the digital information recorded during the initial capture and allows for a greater range of tones.
RAW contains the full RGB (red, green and blue) and retains all the colour information that you need to manipulate each colour channel to lighten or darken areas with those hues.
Monochrome captures can be wonderful, even in situations that would otherwise not be ideal for photography.
Low-contrast situations can provide a fresh result in your digital B&W photography. When you find yourself thinking the day doesn't have "good light," go do some shooting with monochrome in mind.
Colour often masks patterns and shapes in an image, as the colour overpowers everything else. In monochrome those patterns and shapes are what make the photo interesting, so look for them in your scene.
Landscapes benefit greatly from having dramatic skies included in the image. They add intrigue and interest to an otherwise basic photo.
Ensure your image includes plenty of contrast, texture and dramatic elements.
Portraits are a popular way to use digital B&W photography. These images draw the viewer in and create feeling that is unencumbered by the influence of colour.
The emotions on a subject's face can come through in a powerful way by using lighting and the subtle shades of gray to display their expression.
In B&W portraiture, side lighting can accentuate the features and character lines of your subject. Pay strict attention to the results to ensure you are getting what you want. Use front lighting to lessen the impact of those character lines.
In order to view your B&W images on your computer screen effectively, the monitor must be calibrated correctly. Use a grayscale to make sure your monitor sees the range of tones available.
Search for "grayscale calibration tool" to find free ones on the internet.
Happy shooting and remember to leave the environment as you found it.